Basic knowledge of the physical Non-electrolyte solutions. Colligative properties and solubility of pharmaceuticals, osmotic pressure and isotonic solutions: 

(i) Chemical and ionic equilibria-general concepts, acid base equilibria, buffer solutions and pharmaceutical applications: 

(ii) Electro-chemical methods of analysis of pharmaceuticals. Electrolyte solutions and electro-chemistry, Conductimetry, potentiometry- principles, instrumentation and applications in pharmaceutical analysis, amperometric and dead-stop titration, Polarography – principle and analytical applications